Volcanic crisis preparedness and risk management
Theme 4: Volcanic crisis preparedness and risk management description
The overarching aim of this theme is to bring together volcano monitoring institutions, civil protection agencies and volcanological research institutions to better prepare for and respond to volcanic crises. This is being done through the development of new strategies to facilitate sharing of best practices in communication of hazard, between scientists and authorities on topics of scenarios, probabilistic vs. deterministic methods and uncertainty. The project will establish a crisis Management Task Force (Scientific advisory group) and identify available reserves of equipment that could be deployed on under monitored volcanoes in times of crisis.
The volcanic crisis preparedness and risk management theme is centred around research and collaboration on the following topics:
- Identification of hazard scenarios, multi-hazard assessments, and pre-event impact assessments
- New strategies to facilitate sharing and promotion of best practices, and communication between scientists and society (including decision-makers, population and media)
- Establishment of a European expert team of back-up scientists and infrastructure to respond to eruption crises
Volcanic crisis preparedness and risk management activities include:
- Collaboration between volcano monitoring institutions and European Civil Protection agencies for management of volcanic hazard
- Development of a complete European Catalogue of European Volcanoes and related volcanic hazards, and guidelines for a Volcano Monitoring Status level system
- Development and compilation of tools for hazard assessment and risk management
- Physical and virtual access to research infrastructures and tools including on-site modelling resources, hazard assessment tools and the Volcano Dynamics Computational Centre
The volcanic crisis preparedness and risk management theme is primarily the subject of the following Work Packages:
- WP7: Collaboration between volcano monitoring institutions and European Civil Protection agencies for management of volcanic hazard – led by British Geological Survey (BGS)
- WP11: A version 1.0 of European Catalogue of Volcanoes and Volcanic Areas (ECV) and related volcanic hazards, and guidelines for a European Volcano Monitoring Status system – led by Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
- WP12: Exploitation of tools for hazard assessment and risk management – led by Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
European Catalogue of Volcanoes
The European Catalogue of Volcanoes (ECV) was placed online on the 26th of October 2020. It is one of the main products of EUROVOLC and gives access to detailed information of about forty-seven (47) volcanoes, which belong to and/or are monitored by European countries. The interactive web-page also shows the location of 72 active volcanoes within the monitoring territories of France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain.
The ECV used the previously constructed Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is - funded by ICAO and FUTUREVOLC) as an example. The subcontractor Samsýn was responsible for the design of the web-page interface.
Information regarding volcanic hazards, geological background, historical activity is all accessible in a formatted way which guarantees a uniform amount of details across the different volcanoes/volcanic systems. Currently, each Catalogue information consists of a short description serving as a summary, two separate chapters (Central volcano and Fissure swarm) providing important parameters and 14 sub-chapters with detailed description.
A section is dedicated to search for specific eruption information and will contribute to the dissemination of eruption source parameters. Currently few eruptions are listed, but more will be available by the end of the project.
Volcano Observatories in Europe have worked together on collecting data, material, sources and had the common idea of creating an easy-to-use portal designed for a wide audience. Each chapter, per volcano, is available in both English and the local language (i.e. French, Italian, Spanish, Icelandic, Greek and Portuguese).
Online searchable catalogue of pre-existing volcanic hazard assessment tools
Quantitative Volcanic Hazard Assessment has become one of the most rapidly developing topics in volcanology in the last decade. To reach the goal, a number of tools (either methodological or numerical) have been developed to help scientists apply quantitative methods at different volcanic settings. In recent past, some efforts have been devoted to collect tools for volcanology in a reference platform, such as the V-Hub (http://vhub.org), or the effort by INGV team in Pisa (http://vmsg.pi.ingv.it/).
In EUROVOLC, we proposed to collect pre-existing tools assisting the quantification of volcanic hazard, so we have focused on tools that either simulate hazardous volcanic processes, or on tools that use simulations and/or expert knowledge to provide probabilistic assessment of volcanic hazard. To this end, we have first compiled a list of pre-existing hazard tools currently available online: either tools that are runnable online, or downloadable for free or upon request to authors, or listed already by previous efforts such as those mentioned above.
For each tool, the list displays the website, a short description (mostly taken from the tools’ web-pages or papers), authorship of tools, references, requirements and information on implementation, and link for download or online running (where these are available).
Dedicated IAVCEI commissions (i.e., the Commission for Volcanic Hazards and Risk, Commission for Tephra Hazard Modelling and the Commission of Statistics in Volcanology) have been consulted in order not to miss relevant tools.
EUROVOLC citizen science tool for volcanic events
This is a web platform for collating observations from people witnessing volcanic phenomena at European and other volcanoes. The tool allows users to contribute their own observations, as well as to access observations collected through other citizen science tools available across Europe https://eurovolc.bgs.ac.uk/
Citizen science tools include:
- myVolcano (British Geological Survey);
- sulphur dioxide reporting (Iceland Met Office);
- Osservatorio Vesuviano web questionnaire & Tefranet (INGV).
Users are able to view and download the data and filter by, for example, date, geographical location, type of observation, or a specific citizen science tool.
The platform was developed as part of EUROVOLC project with the objective of raising awareness and sharing data on volcanic hazards. This has been a huge collaborative effort by researchers across Europe (full list of collaborators on the About page on https://eurovolc.bgs.ac.uk/)